What is the significance of earnings per share (EPS) in stock selection? - Trading Class | Trading Courses | Webinars
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What is the significance of earnings per share (EPS) in stock selection?

Understanding the Importance of Earnings per Share (EPS) in Stock Selection

Introduction to Earnings per Share (EPS)

Earnings per Share (EPS) is an important financial metric used extensively in the realm of investment and stock selection. EPS serves as an indicator of a company’s profitability, reflecting the net income available to shareholders per outstanding share of common stock. The simplicity of the EPS formula is deceptive, considering the depth of knowledge it offers about a company’s financial performance and overall health.

EPS is calculated by dividing Net Income (after subtracting any preferred dividends) by the number of Outstanding Shares. The idea is to measure the earnings generated per unit of shareholder ownership. This seemingly straightforward metric has profound implications for investors, portfolio managers, and analysts aiming to make smart, informed decisions about stock selection.

The Role of EPS in Investment Decisions

Indicator of Profitability

As an indicator of profitability, the EPS value provides insight into a company’s capacity to generate profits relative to its scale (as represented by the number of shares outstanding). A higher EPS implies a higher profitability level, making the company a potential “buy” candidate for investors. While it is not solely sufficient to base investment decisions on EPS, it forms a key part of the decision-making puzzle.

Basis for Valuation Ratios

EPS additionally serves as the foundation for multiple valuation ratios, most notably the price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio. P/E ratio, a widely-used relative valuation metric, compares a company’s current share price with its per-share earnings. Lower P/E values tend to suggest cheaper or potentially undervalued stocks, whereas higher P/E’s may indicate overvalued stocks. EPS, thus, indirectly influences investment decisions through these ratios.

Nuances of EPS and Its Interpretation

Earnings Quality & EPS

Not all EPS values are created equal. Large EPS figures might sway a novice investor, but savvy investors look further into the quality of the earnings. Companies can manipulate figures to temporarily inflate net incomes and thus EPS, a tactic that could come undone in subsequent financial periods. Therefore, checking the consistency of EPS growth along with understanding the earnings’ sources is crucial.

Growth Rate and EPS

Consistent EPS growth translates into positive indicators for a company’s health and investor attractiveness. A progressively increasing EPS may indicate improving profitability, healthier operational efficiency, and stronger fiscal management. It can also suggest that the company has a sustainable competitive advantage leading to consistent growth.

Limitations of EPS

Like any financial metric, EPS isn’t flawless. One significant pitfall is that EPS doesn’t account for a company’s capital structure. Two companies with different levels of debt might have similar EPS values, but their financial risk profiles are significantly different. Therefore, EPS should not be viewed in isolation but in concert with other financial metrics and company information.


In conclusion, the significance of Earnings per Share (EPS) in stock selection can’t be overstated. It serves as an invaluable tool for gauging a company’s profitability, the quality of its earnings, and its growth trajectory. However, it is important to remember that while EPS is a crucial factor in making investment decisions, it is not the only one.

Investors must approach stock selection with a holistic view, taking into account other fundamental factors such as the company’s industry position, strength of its management team, overall financial health, market conditions, and future growth prospects. This comprehensive approach, accompanied by careful interpretation of EPS and other critical metrics, will equip investors, whether beginners or seasoned, with a robust and effective strategy for stock selection.