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What is intrinsic value?

Understanding Intrinsic Value in the Stock Market


At the heart of smart and informed investing lies the key concept of ‘intrinsic value’. Both beginners and seasoned investors in the stock market must understand this concept to make sound investment decisions. It offers insightful parameters to evaluate stocks, gauge their value, and subsequently base your decision to buy, hold, or sell. Let’s dive deep into understanding what intrinsic value is, how it is calculated, and its significance in the world of investments.

What is Intrinsic Value?

Intrinsic value, in the context of the stock market, refers to the perceived, true, or real value of a company’s stock as opposed to its current market price. It is fundamentally the value that an investor believes a stock should be worth, given the company’s potential earnings, future growth, and tangible/intangible assets. The intrinsic value conceptually represents an all-encompassing view of a company’s long-term potential and profitability.

The idea behind it is to estimate what a company is actually worth, independent of its publicly traded stock price. The fundamental difference between intrinsic value and market price is that while the market price is visible to everyone and frequently changes due to market factors, the intrinsic value is subjective and varies based on the individual’s perception and analysis of the company’s potential.

How is Intrinsic Value Calculated?

There isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach to calculating the intrinsic value of a stock. Instead, different investors employ different methodologies. Here are a few commonly used:

Discounted Cash Flow Analysis

One popular method is Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, which involves forecasting a company’s free cash flows and discounting them using a required annual rate to compute their present value. If this present value is higher than the current price of the company’s stock, the stock is thought to be undervalued.

Dividend Discount Model

Another method is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), appropriate for companies that pay dividends. It discounts future dividends back to their present value. If the resulting value is higher than the current stock price, the stock could be considered underpriced.

Price/Earnings Ratio

The price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio is a straightforward method widely used by investors. Here, investors compare the company’s current P/E to its historical P/E ratios, or the P/E ratios of similar companies or industries. A lower ratio could symbolize an undervalued stock.

It must be noted that these models are based on numerous assumptions, which could result in imprecise estimates of intrinsic value.

Why is Intrinsic Value Important?

Understanding intrinsic value serves as a compass guiding investors’ decisions in the stock market. While the market price of a stock can sometimes be influenced by external market forces and may not accurately reflect the company’s true value, intrinsic value provides a more comprehensive evaluation criterion considering a company’s fundamentals and future growth prospects.

By determining the intrinsic value, investors can make rational investment decisions. If a stock’s market price is less than its intrinsic value, it indicates that the stock might be undervalued, and investing in it could yield potentially high returns in the future.

On the contrary, if the intrinsic value is less than the market price, the stock could be overvalued, and investing in it may not be advisable since the company might not be able to justify its high price with matching performance or future growth.


In essence, the fundamental value, or intrinsic value, of a stock is a critical measure in the toolbox of investors. While it isn’t the be-all and end-all, it is a crucial instrument in an investor’s arsenal that can aid in making informed and calculated investment decisions. Remember, being able to discern the intrinsic value of a company gives investors the edge in recognizing lucrative opportunities and avoiding potential pitfalls. In the dynamic and often unpredictable world of the stock market, this knowledge truly is power.